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APPENDIX II Structures of Modified Nucleosides Found in tRNA

Susumu Nishimura


The structures of modified nucleosides of tRNA found to date are displayed.

aPseudouridine (ψ)bDihydrouridine (D)cRibothymidine (T)d5-Methoxyuridine (mo5U)eUridin-5-oxyacetic acid (V)fUridin-5-oxyacetic acid methyl ester(mV)ag5-(Methoxycarbonylmethyl)uridine(mcm5U)h5-Carboxymethylaminomethyluridine(cmnm5U)bi4-Thiouridine (s4U)j5-Methyl-2-thiouridine (m5s2U)k5-(Methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U)l5-Methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine(mnm5s2U)m5-Carboxymethylaminomethyl-2- thiouridine (cmnm5s2U)cn3-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine(acp3U)o3-Methylcytidine (m3C)p5-Methylcytidine (m5C)qN4-Acetylcytidine (ac4C)r2-Thiocytidine (s2C)s1-Methylinosine (m1I)tInosine (I)uN6-Methyladenosine (m6A)v1-Methyladenosine (m1A)wN6-Isopentenyladenosine (i6A)x2-Methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine(ms2i6A)yN-[(9-β-D-Ribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)carbamoyl]threonine (t6A)zN-[(9-β-D-Ribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)N-methylcarbamoyl]threonine (mt6A)aaN-[N-[(9-β-D-Ribofuranosylpurin-6-yl)carbamoyl]threonyl]2-amido-2-hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-dioldbb1-Methylguanosine (m1G)ccN2-Methylguanosine (m2G)ddN2,N2-Dimethylguanosine (m22G)ee7-Methylguanosine (m7G)ffBase “Y” (yw)ggBase “peroxy Y” (oyW)hhBase “Yt” (W)iiR = H Q (queuosine or Quo),e R = β-D-mannosyl manQ,f R=β-D-galactosyl galQf

References to characterization of the modified nucleosides are cited in: S. Nishimura. 1972. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 12:49; and D. B. Dunn and R. H. Hall. 1975. In Handbook of biochemistry and molecular biology, 3rd ed. (ed. G. D. Fasman), Nucleic Acids, vol. 1, p. 216. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio. aLesiewicz, J. and B. Dudock. 1977. Fed. Proc. 36:705; bMurao, K. and H. Ishikura. 1978. Nucleic Acids Res. (special publication) 5:s333; cH. Ishikura, pers. comm.; dKasai, H., K. Murao, S. Nishimura, J. G. Liehr, P. F. Crain, and J. A. McCloskey. 1976. Eur. J. Biochem. 69:435; eKasai, H., Z. Ohashi, F. Harada, S. Nishimura, N. J. Oppenheimer, P. F. Crain, J. G Liehr, D. L. von Minden, and...

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